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Effects of Earthquakes

  • Uplift or lowering in the elevation of some areas of the earth’s surface, such as the emergence or submergence of some islands and coasts, the formation of mountains.
  • Landslides, creeps, and landslips, especially at the slopes of highlands and in areas with subsurface caves and voids, which result in the destruction of buildings, roads, etc.
  • Ground fracturing and fissuring and their consequent damages on buildings.
  • Liquefaction of soils and unconsolidated sediments, which causes the collapse of the engineering structures constructed ton them.
  • Tsunamis, which cause the flooding of wide areas adjacent to the coasts.
  • Fire resulting from the damages of electricity, gas, and other distribution pipeline networks.