The Saudi Geological Survey is responsible in achieving the sustainability of the water resources feeding the blessed Zamzam. The number of pilgrims to Mecca is increasing constantly during the last three decades due to the increase and expansions in the passenger capacities and routes of modern air transport systems from about 400,000 passengers annually during the mid-seventies to several millions at the present time. This number is constantly increasing. This pressures the natural resources feeding the Well, and requires resorting to creative ideas and untraditional methods to make the balance between supply and demand sustainable.
An overview of the Grand Mosque and the surrounding areas. The blessed Zamzam Well is situated in the southeastern part of the Holy Ka'ba at around 20 m from it
Continuing the approach followed by the rulers, the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Salman Bin Abdulaziz maintained the same approach as his brothers. He paid special attention to Muslims' affairs all over the world, especially on the matters relevant to the sacred cities, including the blessed Zamzam Well situated within the yard of the Grand Mosque in Mecca (Figs 1 and 2). Due to the position of the Well, due to its miraculous creation and its blessed water as stated by Allah’s Messenger, PBUH, and due to the contemporary challenges resulting from the different urban activities and their association with the social and economic development of the city of Mecca, it was necessary to establish a specialized center that concerns with the preservation of the water sources that supply water to this blessed Well and the surrounding areas The center must also conduct studies and research, and apply relevant state-of-art scientific and technical methods in maintaining the Well.