Satellite imageries that are processed for exploration works and mining depend on the degrees of the absorption or reflection of light by minerals and rocks, and, therefore, they can be distinguished and identified through their differences in their absorption or reflection.
Remote sensing is used in hydrological and hydrogeological studies on large scale areas, especially in monitoring droughts, desertification, deterioration of lands, and floods and torrents, by comparing images taken over periods of time. The search for groundwater that exist under the desert sands can also be done by using radar images.
Satellite imageries and data are used as tools to identify the hazards of rock slides, floods, and torrents to determine the locations of affected areas and to minimize their impacts. They are also effectively used in monitoring fault and volcanic activities.
Remote sensing studies became a main pillar in infrastructure studies for urban planning projects for villages, cities, and industrial and economic establishments, such as their applications in the classification of soils and the analysis of topography. For example, study areas, where remote sensing are applied, include the analysis of streams for environmental assessment, urban expansion through time, locations and extents of landslide, floods, etc.